Snail Bivalve

Alabama Mollusks

Freshwater


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Unless otherwise noted, the shells illustrated here were found in the Alabama portion of the Tennessee River system (North Alabama). They are listed alphabetically by scientific name and, when known, the common name and size of the specimen are provided.

Please note: Due to limitations in my photographic ability as well as differences in computer technologies, some illustrations may not display an exact representation of the shell's true color. These pictures are covered by copyright and may not be used without written permission.

Questions concerning species identification and other comments may be sent to Deborah Wills (dwills@hiwaay.net).


Bivalve

Freshwater Bivalves

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Amblema plicata (Say, 1817)
Threeridge (59.5 mm H x 73 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth
Another example (85 mm H x 111 mm L)

Anodonta -- See also: Pyganodon

Anodonta suborbiculata Say, 1831
Flat Floater (94 mm H x 123 mm L); Interior view (open)

Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774)
Asian Clam, Asiatic Clam (36 mm H x 34 mm L); 129 (30 mm H x 27.5 mm L); Interior view (open) of hinge and teeth; Another example (48 mm H x 53 mm L)

Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque, 1820)
Purple Wartyback, Purple Pimpleback (82 mm H x 86 mm L)
Another example (71 mm H x 81 mm L); Interior view (open) of hinge and teeth
Another example (83 mm H x 105 mm L); Interior view (open)

Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque, 1820)
Fanshell (39 mm H x 34 mm W) Single valve
This fossil represents a species that is listed as endangered, but is generally thought to be extinct in the area where it was found.

Dromus dromas (I. Lea, 1834)
Dromedary Pearlymussel (29 mm H x 27 mm W) Single valve
This fossil represents a species that is listed as endangered, but is generally thought to be extinct in the area where it was found.

Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820)
Butterfly (Left, 61 mm H x 74 mm L); (Right, 81 mm H x 104 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Other examples (Female, 37.5 mm H x 49 mm L x 17.5 mm W); (32.5 mm H x 46.5 mm L x 16 mm W)

Elliptio crassidens (Lamarck, 1819)
Elephant-Ear, Mule-Ear (50 mm H x 77 mm L); Interior view (open) of hinge and teeth; Another example (97 mm H x 145 mm L); Another example (87 mm H x 125 mm L)

Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)
Spike, Lady-Finger (47 mm H x 109 mm L); Interior view (open)

Elliptio icterina (Conrad, 1834)
Variable Spike (30.5 mm H x 65 mm L); Interior view (open)of hinge and teeth; Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL

Epioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820)
Tubercled blossom (48 mm H x 53 mm W) Single valve
This fossil represents a species that is listed as endangered, but is generally thought to be extinct in the area where it was found.

Fusconaia barnesiana (I. Lea, 1838)
Tennessee Pigtoe (63 mm H x 92 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Fusconaia ebena (I. Lea, 1831)
Ebonyshell (61 mm H x 68.5 mm L); Another example (62.5 mm H x 78 mm L)

Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) (form undata)
Wabash Pigtoe (83 mm H x 87 mm L)

Fusconaia sp.
(36 mm H x 48.5 mm L); Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Glebula rotundata (Lamarck, 1819)
Round Pearlshell (Female on left, 54 mm H x 74 mm L x 45 W); (Male, 48 mm H x 64 mm L x 33 W); Interior view of hinge and teeth; South Alabama

Lampsilis abrupta (Say, 1831)
Pink Mucket; The pink mucket has been listed by the Federal government as endangered.

Lampsilis altilis (Conrad, 1834)
Fine-lined Pocketbook (54 mm H x 86 mm L); Single valve; Chewacla Creek, Macon County,AL (1992)
This species is currently listed as threatened.

Lampsilis ovata (Say, 1817)
Pocketbook (102 mm H x 84 mm L); Another example (74 mm H x 105 mm W)

Lampsilis teres (Rafinesque, 1820)
Yellow Sandshell, Banana Shell; ( Male, 60 mm H x 134 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Female (52 mm H x 125 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Juvenile (15 mm H x 36 mm L)

Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823)
White Heelsplitter, Angel Wings (96 mm H x 142 mm L)
Another example (66.5 mm H x 70 mm L) (Measured from the wing top to the ventral margin)

Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque, 1820)
Fragile Papershell (32 mm H x 59 mm L)
Another example (66 mm H x 110 mm L)

Lexingtonia dolabelloides (I. Lea, 1840)
Slabside Pearlymussel (43 mm H x 60 mm W); Interior view of hinge and teeth;
Paint Rock River system (May 1995)

Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819)
Black Sandshell (69 mm H x 170 mm L)

Margaritifera marrianae R.I. Johnson, 1983
Alabama Pearlshell (Male, 43 mm H x 87 mm L); Female (open) (41.5 mm H x 81 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL
This species is a candidate for the list of Federally endangered species.

Medionidus conradicus (I. Lea, 1834)
Cumberland Moccasinshell (18.5 mm H x 43 mm L) (Single valve); Interior view (19.5 mm H x 43 mm L) (Single valve); Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Megalonaias nervosa (Rafinesque, 1820)
Washboard, Rubboard (96 mm H x 142 mm L); Interior view (open) (86 mm H x 116 mm L) of hinge and teeth
Another example (95 mm H x 140 mm L); Another example (90 mm H x 137 mm L); Another example (82 mm H x 123 mm L)

Obliquaria reflexa Rafinesque, 1820
Threehorn Wartyback, Three Horn (45 mm H x 49.5 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Tennessee River, Decatur, AL
Another example (53.5 mm H x 60 mm L); (Also called Pink Three Horn because of the pink nacre); South Alabama

Obovaria retusa (Lamarck, 1819)
Ring Pink, Golf stick; This fossil represents a species that is listed as endangered. Occasionally a more recent single valve can be found along the Tennessee River.

Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827)
Bankclimber (60.5 mm H x 107.5 mm L); Tombigbee River below Demopolis, AL

Plethobasus cyphyus (Rafinesque, 1820)
Sheepnose, Bullhead (62 mm H x 71 mm W) Single valve

Pleurobema cordatum (Rafinesque, 1820)
Ohio Pigtoe (59 mm H x 53.5 mm L) Single valve; Another example (96 mm H x 110 mm L)

Pleurobema perovatum (Conrad, 1834)
Ovate Clubshell (33 mm H x 51 mm L); Chewacla Creek, Macon County, AL (October 1992); This species is currently listed as endangered.

Pleurobema pyramidatum (I. Lea, 1840)
Pyramid Pigtoe (57 mm H x 84 mm L)

Polymesoda caroliniana (Bosc, 1801)
Carolina Marshclam (32 mm H x 32 mm L); South Alabama

Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817)
Pink Heelsplitter, Heelsplitter (73 mm H x 133 mm L) (106 mm H from top of wing to ventral margin); Interior view (open)
Another example (45 mm H x 88 mm L) (72 mm H from top of wing to ventral margin); Interior view of hinge and teeth
Another example (94 mm H x 145 mm L) (116 mm H from top of wing to ventral margin); Interior view of hinge and teeth

Potamilus ohiensis (Rafinesque, 1820)
Pink Papershell, Papershell (60 mm H x 92 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth
Another example (39 mm H x 77 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Another example (33 mm H x 60 mm L)

Potamilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819)
Bleufer, Purple Shell, Pink Granny (80 mm H x 97 mm L); Interior view (open)

Ptychobranchus fasciolaris (Rafinesque, 1820)
Kidneyshell (49 mm H x 83 mm W); Tennessee River

Pyganodon (=Anodonta) grandis (Say, 1829)
Giant Floater, Floater (104 mm H x 151 mm L)
Another example (105 mm H x 171 mm L); Interior view (open); Interior view (open); Another example (68 mm H x 105 mm L)

Quadrula apiculata (Say, 1829)
Southern Mapleleaf (69 mm H x 76 mm L x 52 mm W); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Lay Lake, Coosa/Chilton Counties, AL
Another example: (Male, 52 mm H x 59 mm L x 32.5 mm W); (Female, 50.5 mm H x 62 mm L x 37 mm W); South Alabama

Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861)
Alabama Orb (55.5 mm H x 64.5 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Chewacla Creek, Macon County, AL

Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica (Say, 1817)
Rabbitsfoot, Cob Shell (34 mm H x 81 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; North Alabama (Tennessee River System)

Quadrula metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820)
Monkeyface (73 mm H x 97 mm L)

Quadrula pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831)
Pimpleback (60 mm H x 59 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Tennessee River, Decatur, AL

Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820)
Mapleleaf (61 mm H x 71 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth
Another example (43 mm H x 49 mm L); A very pustular specimen (57 mm H x 70 mm L)

Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823)
Lilliput (14.5 mm H x 27 mm L); Another example (14.5 mm H x 27 mm L)

Toxolasma paulus (I. Lea, 1840)
Iridescent Lilliput (22 mm H x 39 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL

Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820)
Pistolgrip, Buckhorn (Female, 61 mm H x 128 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Another Female (66 mm H x 122 mm L); Male (66 mm H x 107 mm L)

Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828)
Fawnsfoot (17.5 mm H x 27 mm L)

Uniomerus caroliniana (Bosc, 1801)
Florida Pondhorn (37 mm H x 77 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth (Interior stained and deteriorated); Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL

Utterbackia (=Anodonta) imbecillis (Say, 1829)
Paper Pondshell, Paper Floater; (21 mm H x 40 mm L)

Snail

Villosa iris (I. Lea, 1829)
Rainbow (Left, 28 mm H x 54 mm L); (Right, 20 mm H x 39 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Villosa lienosa (Conrad, 1834)
Little Spectaclecase (Male on left, 28 mm H x 55 mm L); (Female, 23 mm H x 44 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL

Villosa taeniata (Conrad, 1834)
Painted Creekshell (34 mm H x 55 mm L); Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Villosa vanuxemensis (I. Lea, 1838)
Mountain Creekshell (Female on left, 23.5 mm H x 40 mm L); (Male, 30 mm H x 50 mm L); Interior view of hinge and teeth; Another example (21 mm H x 35 mm L); Estill Fork, Jackson County, AL

Villosa vibex (Conrad, 1834)
Southern Rainbow (30 mm H x 60 mm L); Hunter Creek, Conecuh County, AL

Miniatures/juveniles (Next to a dress pin)


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This page has been accessed times since 6 February 1997.
Last revised 11 August 2000 (dw)